As Eskom’s customers face their first electricity bills after the latest tariff increase of 15.06%, effective from 1 April, it is an opportune time to review reliance on an increasingly costly and ever-less reliable power supply and to consider alternatives that will support a difficult recovery from 2020: a year of not only lockdowns but also 859 hours of load shedding.
With Eskom itself expecting another five years of load shedding and further tariff increases on the cards, businesses are well-advised to understand the impact of load shedding and high electricity costs on them and to take the necessary steps to mitigate the risks of an uncertain and expensive power supply.
We share 6 practical tips to help you on your way…
“The more that energy costs, the less economic activity there can be” (Robert Zubrin)
It has been 13 long years since we first experienced load shedding in 2007. Since then, businesses have lost thousands of hours of productivity and significant amounts of money to these “rolling blackouts”.
The situation is not going to improve – more load shedding is predicted, by Eskom itself, for the next five years together with even higher electricity tariffs. Given the impact of load shedding and the high cost of electricity, business owners are well-advised to understand and assess the risks faced in terms of electricity supply and to implement strategies to mitigate this risk.
Impact on companies
In addition to its devastating impact on the economic environment in which companies operate, all businesses that use electricity for machinery, technology and light, experience a loss of production during power outages - even those with backup batteries or generators.
Smaller and medium sized businesses that cannot afford alternative energy solutions are disproportionately disadvantaged. Unable to provide any service, they lose customers too.
Companies also suffer physical damages from load shedding, for example, to computers and other electronic equipment, perishables damaged in refrigerators and raw materials wasted as production cycles are interrupted, and the inability to deliver to clients as load shedding affects traffic flow.
During load shedding, companies are also exposed to a greater security risk, as well as a theft and burglary risk, as security systems and processes are compromised, which, in addition, could affect their insurance cover.
Six ways to mitigate your electricity risk
- Stay abreast. Task a team member to stay up-to-date with, for example, a load shedding notification app. This will ensure better planning, so the time when there is power can be maximised. It will also enable staff to minimise damage to equipment by switching off correctly before load shedding commences and to reduce stress by ensuring data is backed up.
- What is measured is managed. A professional energy audit for your business will allow you to understand your energy needs and usage patterns. This is the first step to finding the right alternative that may simplify and optimise power usage, lower costs and improve business performance.
- Consider alternative energy solutions, ranging from simple uninterruptible power source (UPS) units and back-up solutions to small or large battery-based and generator solutions, to a variety of solar PV (photovoltaic) solutions. While the initial cost of converting to solar power or purchasing a generator may seem high, the consequential costs of Eskom’s uncertain supply and fast-rising tariffs are also mounting. The cost of solar power equipment, for example, has decreased significantly, making it possible to generate power at a cost lower than the national grid. (This may well be a viable solution particularly if your business operates mainly during daylight/sunlight hours).
- Explore financing options for funding. The impact of the initial capital outlay for alternative energy solutions can be reduced with the right finance. The alternative energy solutions division at FNB Business for example says it has seen a significant increase in demand for funding for renewable energy solutions, with solar PV being the most popular, and are projecting a significant increase in alternative energy funded solutions by the end of the year.
- Find out what incentives your company might benefit from. For example, Eskom is planning to test a “critical peak pricing” pilot tariff with qualifying large customers.
- Another example is Section 12B of the Income Tax Act, which provides for a capital allowance for movable assets used in the production of renewable energy and incentivises the development of smaller solar PV energy projects with an accelerated capital allowance of 100% in the first year for solar PV energy of less than 1MW.
The companies tax rate in South-Africa is 28%. With this incentive, the value of a new solar power system may be deducted as a depreciation expense from the company’s profits. This means that the company’s income tax liability will be decreased by the same value as the value of the installed solar system. This reduction can also be carried over to the next financial year as a deferred tax asset. This is a direct saving of 28% on the purchase price from day one on the solar system!
A Basic Guide to PAYE and Four Common Mistakes
PAYE tax is one of the most frequently confused tax contributions both among employers and employees. It can cause anxiety, but it effectively only means that tax is being paid on behalf of the employee as it is earned, rather than at the end of the tax year, hence “Pay As You Earn”.
Despite the seeming simplicity of this concept there are a number of errors often made in its implementation and both employers and employees frequently have questions regarding the amounts paid, when and how they are paid and just how much is due at the end of the year. This is a basic guide to what PAYE is, and more importantly, how to avoid the most common problems.
“The point to remember is that what the government gives it must first take away” John S. Coleman
If it weren't for the PAYE system, which forces employees to pay taxes as they earn their money, each of us would be liable for a lump sum payment of between 18% and 45% of our total monthly earnings at the end of each tax year. Pay As You Earn (PAYE) requires that employers deduct money from their employees’ earnings as they earn it, and pay this money over to SARS on the employees’ behalf.
To calculate PAYE an employer should multiply an employee’s taxable earnings (which include any fringe benefits such as Disability Benefit Contributions etc.) by 52 weeks, 26 weeks or 12 months (depending on how often they get paid) to get an annual amount. This annual sum is then cross-referenced against the SARS tax tables to calculate annual tax. This calculated annual tax is further reduced by the related annual rebates and then divided again by the same work period to get the monthly PAYE tax, which is withheld, displayed on your IRP5 and paid over to SARS.Example
- Regular monthly income = R10,000.
- Annual equivalent = R10,000 x 12 = R120,000.
- Tax calculated on R120,000 as per tax tables, less annual rebate = R5,886.
- PAYE payable on regular monthly income = R5,886/12 = R490.50 p.m.
In cases where an employer pays certain things like medical aid, pension fund, income protection and/or retirement annuity fund contributions on an employee’s behalf, the employer must deduct these costs from the employee’s earnings and take these deductions/credits into account when calculating PAYE and making payment to SARS. This is where problems begin to creep into the system.
Four Common Problems
Travel costs are a common area of concern for SARS as they can be miscalculated extremely easily. To determine the portion of the travel allowance that should be included in the calculation of an employee’s taxable income, so as to determine the PAYE, the employer is required to implement an 80/20 rule. Either 80% of their mileage is for business purposes, and the remaining 20% of the allowance is subject to tax. Or, only 20% of their travel is business related, and the remaining 80% of the allowance must be taxed. To determine the percentage to be included in taxable income, accurate logbooks must be provided by employees so that the appropriate 80/20 rule can be strictly adhered to.
Choosing the wrong rate here can expose an employee to substantially more tax than they should be paying.
Disability Benefit Contributions
Prior to 1 March 2015 Disability Benefit Contributions could be deducted tax free from an employee's salary thereby reducing their PAYE contribution. Tax was then charged on the pay-out that the employee received in the event of a disability. This changed in March of that year, however, and now the Disability Benefit Contributions are no longer tax deductible and must be counted as being part of the employee’s fringe benefits. The final Disability pay-outs are, fortunately, tax free.
Retirement payments give rise to another common error in the calculation of PAYE, mainly due to the fact that people are unaware that the system changed, and they are still implementing the old system. As of 1 March 2016, SARS now considers all company contributions to an employee’s retirement and risk benefits as a fringe benefit which should be taxed.
There are, however, instances in which a pension fund contribution may be tax deductible. This depends primarily on whether the pension fund is “approved” or “unapproved”. Whether a retirement benefit is “approved” or “unapproved” is determined by the way its associated fund is administered as well as the rules of the fund. The broker who administers the fund will be able to tell you whether it is approved or unapproved and it will then be easier to work out just how to treat those deductions for PAYE.
Partial tax year
Because PAYE taxes are calculated on a projected annual earning, those employees who work only part of a year are liable to benefit from a rebate. Effectively a person earning R30 000 a month would pay monthly PAYE based on an annual earning of R360 000 a year. If they only work for six months of that tax year they should then have only been charged for an annual tax earning of R180 000 and will be deserving of a rebate for the six months where they paid too much.
This rebate is calculated and determined by SARS, on the individual's annual tax assessment.